CAPEC-36 - Using Unpublished Web Service APIs

An attacker searches for and invokes Web Services APIs that the target system designers did not intend to be publicly available. If these APIs fail to authenticate requests the attacker may be able to invoke services and/or gain privileges they are not authorized for.

Severity

Likelihood

Confidentiality

Integrity

Availability

  • Attack Methods 2
  • Analysis
  • API Abuse
  • Purposes 1
  • Penetration
  • Sec Principles 2
  • Never Assuming that Your Secrets Are Safe
  • Complete Mediation
  • Scopes 2
  • Read application data
  • Confidentiality
  • Gain privileges / assume identity
  • Authorization
  • Access_Control
  • Confidentiality

Low level: A number of web service digging tools are available for free that help discover exposed web services and their interfaces. In the event that a web service is not listed, the attacker does not need to know much more in addition to the format of web service messages that he can sniff/monitor for.

The architecture under attack must publish or otherwise make available services, of some kind, that clients can attach to, either in an unauthenticated fashion, or having obtained an authentication token elsewhere.

The service need not be 'discoverable' but in the event it isn't, must have some way of being discovered by an attacker.

This might include listening on a well-known port. Ultimately, the likelihood of exploit depends on discoverability of the vulnerable service.

No special resources are required in order to conduct these attacks. Web service digging tools may be helpful.

Probing techniques should often follow normal means of identifying services. Attackers will simply have to execute code that sends the appropriate interrogating SOAP messages to suspected UDDI services (in web-services scenarios). Attackers will likely want to detect and query the organization's SOA Registry.

Probing techniques become more difficult when the service isn't advertised, or doesn't leverage discovery frameworks such as UDDI or the WS-I standard. In these cases, sniffing network traffic may suffice, depending on whether or not discovery occurs over a protected channel.

Use Authorization Mechanisms Correctly

Use Authentication Mechanisms, Where Appropriate, Correctly

Step 1 -

Discover a web service of interest, by exploring web service registry listings or by connecting on known port or some similar means.

Step 2 -

Authenticate to the web service, if required, in order to explore it..

Step 3 -

Determine the exposed interfaces by querying the registry as well as probably sniffing to expose interfaces that are not explicitly listed..


Authenticate every request or message to a service

Do not rely on lack of discoverability to protect privileged functions within the service

Authenticating both services and their discovery, and protecting that authentication mechanism simply fixes the bulk of this problem. Protecting the authentication involves the standard means, including: 1) protecting the channel over which authentication occurs, 2) preventing the theft, forgery, or prediction of authentication credentials or the resultant tokens, or 3) subversion of password reset and the like.