CAPEC-222 - iFrame Overlay

In an iFrame overlay attack the victim is tricked into unknowingly initiating some action in one system while interacting with the UI from seemingly completely different system. While being logged in to some target system, the victim visits the attackers' malicious site which displays a UI that the victim wishes to interact with. In reality, the iFrame overlay page has a transparent layer above the visible UI with action controls that the attacker wishes the victim to execute. The victim clicks on buttons or other UI elements they see on the page which actually triggers the action controls in the transparent overlaying layer. Depending on what that action control is, the attacker may have just tricked the victim into executing some potentially privileged (and most undesired) functionality in the target system to which the victim is authenticated. The basic problem here is that there is a dichotomy between what the victim thinks he or she is clicking on versus what he or she is actually clicking on.

Severity

Likelihood

Confidentiality

Integrity

Availability

  • Attack Methods 2
  • Spoofing
  • Social Engineering
  • Purposes 1
  • Exploitation
  • Scopes 5
  • Modify application data
  • Integrity
  • Read application data
  • Confidentiality
  • Execute unauthorized code or commands
  • Authorization
  • Gain privileges / assume identity
  • Non-Repudiation
  • Authorization
  • Authentication
  • Accountability
  • Bypass protection mechanism
  • Authorization
  • Access_Control

High level: Crafting the proper malicious site and luring the victim to this site is not a trivial task.

The victim is communicating with the target application via a web based UI and not a thick client. The victim's browser security policies allow iFrames. The victim uses a modern browser that supports UI elements like clickable buttons (i.e. not using an old text only browser). The victim has an active session with the target system. The target system's interaction window is open in the victim's browser and supports the ability for initiating sensitive actions on behalf of the user in the target system.

No special resource required.

Step 1 - Craft an iFrame Overlay page

The attacker crafts a malicious iFrame overlay page..

Tecnique ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-Web

The attacker leverages iFrame overlay capabilities to craft a malicious iFrame overlay page.

Indicator ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-Web

Type: Positive

Overlay capabilities are enabled in the browser.

Indicator ID: 2 - Environment(s) env-Web

Type: Negative

The target website implements protection against iFrame Overlay (frame busting).


Security Control ID: 1

Type: Preventative

Disable overlay functionality in the browser. This can have obvious impact on the usability of the browser with some sites and web applications.

Security Control ID: 2

Type: Preventative

Implement frame busting protection in JavaScript in the application. The client-side code detects if a parent frame exist, if so, an iFrame overlay attack might be attempted.


Outcome ID: 1

Type: Success

A page is created that performs unseen actions when the user interacts with the visible UI.



Step 1 - Attacker tricks victim to load the iFrame overlay page

Attacker utilizes some form of temptation, misdirection or coercion to trick the victim to loading and interacting with the iFrame overlay page in a way that increases the chances that the victim will visit the malicious page..

Tecnique ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-Web

Trick the victim to the malicious site by sending the victim an e-mail with a URL to the site.

Tecnique ID: 2 - Environment(s) env-Web

Trick the victim to the malicious site by manipulating URLs on a site trusted by the victim.

Tecnique ID: 3 - Environment(s) env-Web

Trick the victim to the malicious site through a cross-site scripting attack.

Security Control ID: 1

Type: Preventative

Disable overlay functionality in the browser. This can have obvious impact on the usability of the browser with some sites and web applications.


Outcome ID: 1

Type: Success

The victim loads the iFrame overlay page.


Step 2 - Trick victim into interacting with the iFrame overlay page in the desired manner

The attacker tricks the victim into clicking on the areas of the UI which contain the hidden action controls and thereby interacts with the target system maliciously with the victim's level of privilege..

Tecnique ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-Web

Hide action controls over very commonly used functionality.

Tecnique ID: 2 - Environment(s) env-Web

Hide action controls over very psychologically tempting content.


Configuration: Disable iFrames in the Web browser.

Operation: When maintaining an authenticated session with a privileged target system, do not use the same browser to navigate to unfamiliar sites to perform other activities. Finish working with the target system and logout first before proceeding to other tasks.

Operation: If using the Firefox browser, use the NoScript plug-in that will help forbid iFrames.