CAPEC-219 - XML Routing Detour Attacks

An attacker subverts an intermediate system used to process XML content and forces the intermediate to modify and/or re-route the processing of the content. XML Routing Detour Attacks are Man in the Middle type attacks. The attacker compromises or inserts an intermediate system in the processing of the XML message. For example, WS-Routing can be used to specify a series of nodes or intermediaries through which content is passed. If any of the intermediate nodes in this route are compromised by an attacker they could be used for a routing detour attack. From the compromised system the attacker is able to route the XML process to other nodes of his or her choice and modify the responses so that the normal chain of processing is unaware of the interception. This system can forward the message to an outside entity and hide the forwarding and processing from the legitimate processing systems by altering the header information.

Severity

Likelihood

Confidentiality

Integrity

Availability

  • Attack Methods 2
  • Protocol Manipulation
  • Injection
  • Purposes 1
  • Exploitation
  • Scopes 4
  • Modify application data
  • Integrity
  • Read application data
  • Confidentiality
  • Gain privileges / assume identity
  • Non-Repudiation
  • Authorization
  • Authentication
  • Accountability
  • Bypass protection mechanism
  • Authorization
  • Access_Control

Low level: To inject a bogus node in the XML routing table

The targeted system must have multiple stages processing of XML content.

The attacker must be able to insert or compromise a system into the processing path for the transaction.

Step 1 - Survey the target

Using command line or an automated tool, an attacker records all instances of web services to process XML requests..

Tecnique ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-Web env-ClientServer

Use automated tool to record all instances to process XML requests or find exposed WSDL.

Tecnique ID: 2 - Environment(s) env-Web env-ClientServer

Use tools to crawl WSDL

Indicator ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-Web env-ClientServer

Type: Positive

The URL processes XML requests.

Indicator ID: 2 - Environment(s) env-Web env-ClientServer

Type: Inconclusive

The application does not accept XML requests.



Step 1 - Identify SOAP messages that have multiple state processing.

Inspect instance to see whether the XML processing has multiple stages or not..

Tecnique ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-Web env-ClientServer

Inspect the SOAP message routing head to see whether the XML processing has multiple stages or not.

Indicator ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-Web env-ClientServer

Type: Positive

The SOAP message has multiple stage processing.

Indicator ID: 2 - Environment(s) env-Web env-ClientServer

Type: Negative

The SOAP message does not have intermediate nodes.


Security Control ID: 1

Type: Detective

Monitor velocity of page fetching in web logs. Humans who view a page and select a link from it will click far slower and far less regularly than tools. Tools make requests very quickly and the requests are typically spaced apart regularly (e.g. 0.8 seconds between them).


Outcome ID: 1

Type: Success

A list of URLs which have multiple stages to process XML contents.



Step 1 - Launch an XML routing detour attack

The attacker injects a bogus routing node (using a WS-Referral service) into the routing table of the XML header of the SOAP message identified in the Explore phase. Thus, the attacker can route the XML message to the attacker controlled node (and access the message contents)..

Tecnique ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-Web env-ClientServer

The attacker injects a bogus routing node (using a WS-Referral service) into the routing table of the XML header of the SOAP message

Security Control ID: 1

Type: Preventative

Use SSL for connections between all parties with mutual authentication.


Outcome ID: 1

Type: Success

The XML message is routed to the attacker controlled node.



Design: Specify maximum number intermediate nodes for the request and require SSL connections with mutual authentication.

Implementation: Use SSL for connections between all parties with mutual authentication.