CAPEC-180 - Exploiting Incorrectly Configured Access Control Security Levels

An attacker exploits a weakness in the configuration of access controls and is able to bypass the intended protection that these measures guard against and thereby obtain unauthorized access to the system or network. Sensitive functionality should always be protected with access controls. However configuring all but the most trivial access control systems can be very complicated and there are many opportunities for mistakes. If an attacker can learn of incorrectly configured access security settings, they may be able to exploit this in an attack. Most commonly, attackers would take advantage of controls that provided too little protection for sensitive activities in order to perform actions that should be denied to them. In some circumstances, an attacker may be able to take advantage of overly restrictive access control policies, initiating denial of services (if an application locks because it unexpectedly failed to be granted access) or causing other legitimate actions to fail due to security. The latter class of attacks, however, is usually less severe and easier to detect than attacks based on inadequate security restrictions. This attack pattern differs from CAPEC 1, "Accessing Functionality Not Properly Constrained by ACLs" in that the latter describes attacks where sensitive functionality lacks access controls, where, in this pattern, the access control is present, but incorrectly configured.

Severity

Likelihood

Confidentiality

Integrity

Availability

  • Attack Methods 2
  • Analysis
  • Brute Force
  • Purposes 1
  • Penetration
  • Scopes 10
  • Modify files or directories
  • Integrity
  • Read files or directories
  • Confidentiality
  • Modify application data
  • Integrity
  • Read memory
  • Confidentiality
  • Modify memory
  • Integrity
  • Read application data
  • Confidentiality
  • Execute unauthorized code or commands
  • Authorization
  • Gain privileges / assume identity
  • Authorization
  • Bypass protection mechanism
  • Authorization
  • Access_Control
  • DoS: instability
  • DoS: crash / exit / restart
  • Availability

Low level: In order to discover unrestricted resources, the attacker does not need special tools or skills. He only has to observe the resources or access mechanisms invoked as each action is performed and then try and access those access mechanisms directly.

The target must apply access controls, but incorrectly configure them. However, not all incorrect configurations can be exploited by an attacker. If the incorrect configuration applies too little security to some functionality, then the attacker may be able to exploit it if the access control would be the only thing preventing an attacker's access and it no longer does so. If the incorrect configuration applies too much security, it must prevent legitimate activity and the attacker must be able to force others to require this activity..

No special resources are required for this attack.

Step 1 - Survey

The attacker surveys the target application, possibly as a valid and authenticated user..

Tecnique ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-Web

Spider the web site for all available links.

Tecnique ID: 2 - Environment(s) env-Web

Brute force to guess all function names/action with different privileges.

Indicator ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-Web

Type: Positive

Access control mechanism is present in the system.

Indicator ID: 2 - Environment(s) env-Web

Type: Positive

Operating modes with different privileges are present in the system.


Security Control ID: 1

Type: Preventative

Correctly configure access control policy.


Outcome ID: 1

Type: Success

The attacker gets a list of functionality and data that can be accessed through the system.



Step 1 - Identify weak points in access control configurations

The attacker probes the access control for functions and data identified in the Explore phase to identify potential weaknesses in how the access controls are configured..

Tecnique ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-All

The attacker attempts authenticated access to targeted functions and data.

Tecnique ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-All

The attacker attempts indirect and side channel access to targeted functions and data.

Tecnique ID: 2 - Environment(s) env-All

The attacker attempts unauthenticated access to targeted functions and data.


Step 1 - Access the function or data bypassing the access control

The attacker executes the function or accesses the data identified in the Explore phase bypassing the access control..

Tecnique ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-All

The attacker executes the function or accesses the data not authorized to him.

Security Control ID: 1

Type: Preventative

Configure the access control correctly.


Outcome ID: 1

Type: Success

Functionality is accessible to unauthorized users.



Design: Configure the access control correctly.