CAPEC-103 - Clickjacking

In a clickjacking attack the victim is tricked into unknowingly initiating some action in one system while interacting with the UI from seemingly completely different system. While being logged in to some target system, the victim visits the attackers' malicious site which displays a UI that the victim wishes to interact with. In reality, the clickjacked page has a transparent layer above the visible UI with action controls that the attacker wishes the victim to execute. The victim clicks on buttons or other UI elements they see on the page which actually triggers the action controls in the transparent overlaying layer. Depending on what that action control is, the attacker may have just tricked the victim into executing some potentially privileged (and most certainly undesired) functionality in the target system to which the victim is authenticated. The basic problem here is that there is a dichotomy between what the victim thinks he's clicking on versus what he or she is actually clicking on.

Severity

Likelihood

Confidentiality

Integrity

Availability

  • Attack Methods 2
  • Spoofing
  • Social Engineering
  • Purposes 1
  • Exploitation
  • Sec Principles 1
  • Shed elevated privileges as soon as possible (i.e. log out of the target application once finished with it and before doing other things in the browser)
  • Scopes 4
  • Gain privileges / assume identity
  • Authorization
  • Access_Control
  • Confidentiality
  • Modify memory
  • Modify files or directories
  • Modify application data
  • Integrity
  • Read files or directories
  • Read memory
  • Read application data
  • Confidentiality
  • DoS: instability
  • DoS: crash / exit / restart
  • Availability

High level: Crafting the proper malicious site and luring the victim to this site are not trivial tasks.

The victim is communicating with the target application via a web based UI and not a thick client

The victim's browser security policies allow at least one of the following JavaScript, Flash, iFrames, ActiveX, or CSS.

The victim uses a modern browser that supports UI elements like clickable buttons (i.e. not using an old text only browser)

The victim has an active session with the target system.

The target system's interaction window is open in the victim's browser and supports the ability for initiating sensitive actions on behalf of the user in the target system

Low: A computer connected to the internet.

Step 1 - Craft a clickjacking page

The attacker utilizes web page layering techniques to try to craft a malicious clickjacking page.

Tecnique ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-Web

The attacker leveraged iframe overlay capabilities to craft a malicious clickjacking page

Tecnique ID: 2 - Environment(s) env-Web

The attacker leveraged Flash file overlay capabilities to craft a malicious clickjacking page

Tecnique ID: 3 - Environment(s) env-Web

The attacker leveraged Silverlight overlay capabilities to craft a malicious clickjacking page

Tecnique ID: 4 - Environment(s) env-Web

The attacker leveraged cross-frame scripting to craft a malicious clickjacking page

Indicator ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-Web

Type: Positive

Overlay capabilities are enabled in the browser


Security Control ID: 1

Type: Preventative

Disable overlay functionality in the browser. This can have obvious impact on the utility of the browser with some sites and web applications.


Outcome ID: 1

Type: Success

A page is created that performs unseen actions when the user interacts with the visible UI



Step 1 - Attacker lures victim to clickjacking page

Attacker utilizes some form of temptation, misdirection or coercion to lure the victim to loading and interacting with the clickjacking page in a way that increases the chances that the victim will click in the right areas..

Tecnique ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-Web

Lure the victim to the malicious site by sending the victim an e-mail with a URL to the site.

Tecnique ID: 2 - Environment(s) env-Web

Lure the victim to the malicious site by manipulating URLs on a site trusted by the victim.

Tecnique ID: 3 - Environment(s) env-Web

Lure the victim to the malicious site through a cross-site scripting attack.

Outcome ID: 1

Type: Success

The victim loads the clickjacking page.


Step 2 - Trick victim into interacting with the clickjacking page in the desired manner

The attacker tricks the victim into clicking on the areas of the UI which contain the hidden action controls and thereby interacts with the target system maliciously with the victim's level of privilege..

Tecnique ID: 1 - Environment(s) env-Web

Hide action controls over very commonly used functionality.

Tecnique ID: 2 - Environment(s) env-Web

Hide action controls over very psychologically tempting content.


Enforce maximum security restrictions in the browser: JavaScript disabled, Flash disabled, CSS disabled, iFrames forbidden

If using the Firefox browser, use the NoScript plug-in that will help forbid iFrames.

Turn off JavaScript, Flash and disable CSS.

When maintaining an authenticated session with a privileged target system, do not use the same browser to navigate to unfamiliar sites to perform other activities. Finish working with the target system and logout first before proceeding to other tasks.